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This Internet version © Copyright D J Stewart 2000. All rights reserved.
Original version © Copyright D. J. Stewart 1959.

A bibliography of the first decade of cybernetics

D J STEWART


Index: Click on a letter below to go straight to that section

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O

- P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Symposia


K

KALMUS, H. (1950). A cybernetical aspect of genetics. J. Hered. 41, 19-22.

KAPP, R. 0. (1955). The observer, the interpreter and the object observed. Methodos, 25-26, .3-12.

KAPP, R.O. (1954). Living and lifeless machines. Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 5, 91-103.

KECSKEMETI, P. (1952). Meaning, communication and value. Chicago, Ill: Univer. of Chicago Press.

KEMENY, J.G. (1953). A logical measure function. J. Symb. Logic. 18, 289.

KEMENY, J.G. (1955). Man viewed as a machine. Sci. Amer. (April), 58-67.

KENNEDY, J. L (1952). The uses and limitations of mathematical models, game theory, and systems analysis in planning end problem solution. In J.C. Flanagan et al (Eds.), Current trends - psychology in the world emergency. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Univer. of Pittsburg Press.

KING, G.W. (1952). Information. Sci. Amer. l87, 3.

KING, G.W. (1953). The Monte Carlo method as a natural mode of expression in operations research. J. Operat. Res. Soc. Amer. 1, 33-58.

KIRK, J.R. (1953). Communication theory and methods of fixing belief. Etc. Rev. gen. Semant. 10, 298-305.

KLEENE, S.C. (1951). Representation of events in nerve nets and finite automata. U.S. Air Force, Project Rand, Research Memorandum. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, California. Also (1956) In C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (Eds.), Automata Studies. Princeton, N.J: Princeton Univer. Press.

KLEIN, M.J. (1953). Order, organisation and entropy. Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 4, 158-160.

KLEMMER, E.T. (1955 ). Tables for computing informational measures. In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

KLEMMER, E.T. and MULLER, P.F. Jr. (1953). The rate of handling information - key pressing responses to light patterns. U.S.A.F. Hum. Fact. Operat. Res. Lab. Memo. Report No. 34. Operations Applications Laboratory, Air Research and Development Command.

KOEFOED, J. (1955). A neuronic model of the inner ear. In E.C. Cherry, (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

KOLMOGOROFF, A. (1942). Interpolation und Extrapolation von stationaren zufalligen Folgen. (Interpolation and extrapolation of stationary random sequences.) Bull. Acad. Sci., U.S.S.R. Ser. Math. 5, 3.

KONORSKI, J. (1950). Mechanisms of learning. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology. No.4 - Physiological mechanisns in animal behaviour. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univer. Press.

KORSYBSKI, A. (1948). Science and sanity. (3rd ed.). Lancaster, Pa.: Science Press.

KREEZER, G. L (1949). An inverse decibel log frequenqy method for determination of the transfer functions of psychological systems. Science, 681-684.

KRULEE, G.K. (1954). Information theory and man-machine systems. J. Operat. Res. Soc. Amer. 2, 320-328.

KUBIE, L.S. (1930). A theoretical application to some neurological problems of the properties of excitation waves which move in closed circuits. Brain, 53, 166-177.

KUBIE, L.S. (1949). Neurotic potential and human adaptation. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the sixth conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

KUBIE, L.S. (1951). The relationship of symbolic function in language formation and in neuroses. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular , causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the seventh conference. New York: Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation.

KUBIE, L.S. (1952). Communication between sane and insane hypnosis. In H. Von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social. Systems. Transactions of the eighth conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

KUBIE, L.S. (1953). The place of emotions in the feedback concept. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the ninth conference. New Yor:k: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

KULLBACK, S. (1952). An application of information theory to multivariate analysis. Ann. math. Statist. 23, 88-102.

KULLBACK, S. and LEIBLER, R.A. (1951). On information and sufficiency. Ann. math. Statist. 22, 79-87.

L

LAEMMEL, A.E. ( ). General theory of communication. Microwave Res. Inst. Polytechnic Brooklyn.

LAEMMEL, A.E. (1951). Characteristics of communication systems. Report R-233-50, PIB-178, Microwave Res. Inst., Polytechnic Inst. Brooklyn.

LAEMMEL, A.E. (1952). Efficiency of codes as a function of their message length. Symposium on applications of communication theory. London. I.E.E.

LAEMMEL, A.E. (1953). Efficiency of noise-reducing codes. In W.Jackson (Ed.), Communication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

LAEMMEL, A.E. (1955). A general class of codes and their physical realization. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

LANGER, S.K. (1942). Philosophy in a new key. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univer. Press. Also (1948) New York: Penguin books.

LAPLUME, J. (1948). Sur le nombre de signaux discernables. (On the number of discernable signals). C. R. Acad. Sci. ,Paris. 226, 1348 - 1349.

LASHLEY, K.S. (1951). The problem of serial order in behaviour. In L.A. Jeffress (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behaviour. New York: Wiley.

LAUER, H., NESNICK, R. and MATSON, I.E. (1945 ) Servomechanism fundamentals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

LAWRENCE, W. (1953). The synthesis of speech from signals which have a low information rate. In W. Jackson (Ed.), Communication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

LEAVER, E.W. and BROWN, J.J. (1951). Electronics and human beings. Harpers Mag. 203 (1215), 88-93.

LEAVITT, H.J. (1951). Some effects of certain conmunication patterns on group performance. J. abnorm. soc. Psychol. 46, 1, 38-50.

LEAVITT, H.J. and MUELLER, R.A.H. (1951). Some effects of feedback on communication. Hum. Relat. 4, 401-410.

LEE, B.S. (1950). Effects of delayed speech feedback. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 22, 6, 824-826.

LEE, Y.W. ( ). Application of statistical methods to communication problems. Technical Report No.181, Research Laboratory of Electronics, M.I.T.

LEE, Y.W. and WIESNER, J.B. (1950) Correlation functions and communication applications. Electronics, 23, 6, 86-92.

LEONARD, J.A. (1954). The effect of partial advance information. Applied Psychology Research Unit. APU. 217/54.

LEONARD, J.A. (1955). Factors which influence channel capacity. In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

LEVINSON, N. (1948). A heuristic exposition of Wiener's mathematical theory of prediction and filtering. Appendix C to N. Wiener, Cybernetics. New York: Wiley.

LEWIN, K. (1947). Frontiers in group dynamics, II. Hum. Relat. 1, 2.

LICKLIDER, J.C.R. (1949). The intelligibility and information content of quantized speech. Amer. Psychologist. 4, 234.

LICKLIDER, J.C.R. (1950). The manner in which and extent to which speech can be distorted and remain intelligible. In H. Von Foerster, (Ed), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the seventh conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

LICKLIDER, J.C.R. (1951). A duplex theory of pitch perception. Experientia (Basel) 7, 4, 128-134

LICKLIDER, J.C.R. (1955). Auditory frequency analysis. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

LICKLIDER, J.C.R. and MILLER, G.A. (1951). The perception of speech. In S.S. Stevens (Ed.), Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley.

LINSCHITZ, H. (1953a). Information and physical entropy. .In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in biology. Urbana: Univer. of Illinois Press.

LINSCHITZ, H. (1953b). The information content of a bacterial cell. In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in biology. Urbana: Univer. of Illinois Press.

LINFOOT, E.H. (1955). Informations theory and optical images. J. opt. Soc. Amer. 45, 808-819.

LOCKE, W.N. and BOOTH, A.D. (1955). Machine translation of languages. New York: Technology Press, M.I.T. and Wiley. Also London: Chapman and Hall.

LOEB, J. (1953). Communication theory of transmission of simple drawings. In W.Jackson (Ed.), Comnunication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

LORGE, I. (1955). How the psychologist views communication. Teach. Coll. Rec. 57, 2, 72-19.

LOTKA, A.J. (1925). Elements of physical biology. Baltimore, Md: Williams and Wilkins.

LUCE, R.D. (......). A survey of the theory of selective information and some of its behavioural applications. Bur. Appl. Soc. Res. Tech. Report No. 8, Columbia Univer., New York.

LUCE, R.D. (1950). Connectivity and generalised cliques in sociometric structures. Psychometrika, 15, 169-190.

LUCE, R.D. and PERRY, A.D. (1949). A method of matrix analysis of group structure. Psychometrika 14, 95-116.

M

MAATSCH, J.L. and BEHAN, R.A. (1953).A more rigorous theoretical language. Psychol. Rev. 60, 3, 189-196.

MacDONALD, D.K.C. (1949). Some statistical properties of random noise. Proc. Cambridge. phil. Soc. (England), 45, 368.

MacDONALD, D.K.C. (1950). Fluctuations and theory of noise. In lnformation theory, first London symposium. London: Ministry of Supply. Mimeographed.

MacDONALD, D.K.C. (1952). Information theory and its application to taxonomy. J. appl. Phys. 23, 529.

MacDONALD, D.K.C. (1954). Information theory and knowledge. J. appl. Phys. 25, 619.

MACE, C.A. (1953). Homeostasis, needs and values. Brit. J. Psychol. 44, 4, 200-210.

MacGOLL, L.A. (1945). Servomechanisms. New York: Van Nostrand.

MacKAY, D.M (1956a). The epistemological problem for automata. In C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (Eds.), Automata Studies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univer. Press.

MacKAY, D.M. (1949). On the combination of digital and analogical techniques in the design of analytical engines. Mimeographed. (May 20th)

MacKAY, D.M. (1950a). Entropy, time and information. In Information theory, first London Symposium. London: Ministry of Supply. Mimeographed.

MacKAY, D.M. (1950b). The nomenclature of information theory. In Information theory, first London Symposium. London: Ministry of Supply. Mimeographed. Also (1952) In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the eighth conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

MacKAY, D.M. (1950c). Quantal aspects of scientific information. Phil. Mag. 7, 41, 289-311. Also (1950) in Information theory, first London Symposium. London: Ministry of Supply. Mimeographed.

MacKAY, D.M. (1951a). In search of basic symbols. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the eighth conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

MacKAY, D.M. (1951b). Mind-like behaviour in artifacts. (Reply to Mays, 1952) Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 2, 105-121.

MacKAY, D.M. (1952a). Mentality in machines - symposium. Proc. Aristotelian Soc. Supplementary Vol. 26.

MacKAY, D.M. (1952b). Mind-like behaviour in artefacts. (Comment on May's comment, 1952). Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 3, 352-353.

MacKAY, D.M. (1953a). The effects of relaxation time on the relative efficiency of binary PCM, PIM, and PPM. In W. Jackson (Ed.), Communication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MacKAY, D.M. (1953b). Generators of information. In W. Jackson (Ed.), Communication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MacKAY, D.M. (1954a). On comparing the brain with machines. Advanc. Sci. 40. Also (1954) Amer. Scientist, 42, 261-268.

MacKAY, D.M. (1954b). Operational aspects of some fundamental concepts of human communication. Synthese, 9, 182.

MacKay, D.M. (1955a). The place of 'meaning' in the theory of information. In E.C. Cherry (Ed), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MacKAY, D.M. (1955b). Supra-logical behaviour in automata. (Abstract) Acta Psychol. 11, 204-205.

MacKAY, D.M. (1956b). Towards an information-flow model of human behaviour. Brit. J. Psych. 47, 30.

MacKAY, D.M. and McCULLOCH, W.S. (1952). The limiting information capacity of a neuronal link. Bull. math. Biophysics, 14, 127.

MacMILLAN, R.H. (1951). An introduction to the theory of control. London: Cambridge Univer. Press.

MACRAE, D. G. (1951). Cybernetics and social science. Brit. J. Sociol. 2, 135-149.

MANDELBROT, B. (1951). Mecanique statistique et theorie de l'information. (Statistical mechanics and the theory of information.) C.R.Acad.Sci., Paris, 232, 1638-1640, and 2003-2005.

MANDELBROT, B. (1953a). Communication theory. London: Butterworths

MANDELBROT, B. (1954). Structure formelle des textes et communication: deux etudes. (Formal structure of texts and communication: two studies. Word, 10, 1-27.

MANDELBROT, B. (1955). On the language of taxonomy: an outline of a 'thermo-statistical' theory of systems of categories with Willis (natural) structure. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MANDELBROT, B. 1953b) An informal theory of the statistical theory of language. In W. Jackson (Ed), Communication theory, second London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MARCOU, P. and DAGUET, J. (1955) New methods of speech transmission. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths

MASON, S.J. (1951). On the logic of feedback. D.Sc. thesis, M.I.T.

MAXWELL, C. (1868) On governors. Proc. Roy.Soc. 16, 270-283.

MAYNE, R. (1951). Some engineering aspects of the mechanism of body control. Elec. Engng. 70, 3.

MAYS, W. (1951). The hypothesis of cybernetics. (Comment on Wisdom, 1951). Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 2, 249-250.

MAYS, W. (1952a). Can machines think? Philosophy, 27, 148-162.

MAYS, W. (1952b). Mind-like behaviour in artefacts and the concept of mind. (Comment on MacKay, 1951). Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 3, 191 -193.

MAYS, W. (1956). Minds and machines-I. B.B.C. Third programne talk, reported in The Listener, Dec. 27.

McCALLUM, D.M. and SMITH, J.B. (1951a). Mechanized reasoning. Electron. Engng., 23, 278, 126-132.

McCALLUM, D.M. and SMITH, J.B. (1951b). Feedback logical computors. Electron. Engng., 23, 286, 458-461.

McCARTHY, J. (1956). The inversion of functions defined by Turing machines. In C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (Eds.), Automata studies, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer. Press.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1944). The functional organization of the cerebral cortex. Physiol. Rev. 3, 390-407.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1945). A heterarchy of values determined by the topology of nerve nets. Bull. Math. Biophys. 7, 89-93.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1946). Finality and form. 15th James Arthus Lecture, New York Acad. Sci. Also (1952) Springfield, Ill.: Thomas.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1947a). Machines that think and want. Lecture to American Psychological Association.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1947b). Modes of functional organization of the cerebral cortex. Federation Proc. 6, 2, 448-452.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1948a). A recapitulation of the theory, with a forecast of several extensions. Teleological Mechanisms. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 50, 4, 247-258.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1948b). Through the den of the metaphysician. Lecture at the University of Virginia. Also (1951) Thales, Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. Also (1954) Brit. J. Phil. Sci. 5, 18-31.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1949). The brain as a computing machine. Elec. Engng. 68, 492-497.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1950). Why the mind is in the head. Dialectica, 4, 192-205. Also (1951) In L.A. Jefress (Ed.), Cerebral mechanisms in behaviour. New York: Wiley.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1953). Information in the head. In R.A. Patton. (Ed.), Current trends in information theory, 92-118. Pittsburgh, PA.: Univer. of Pittsburgh Press.

McCULLOCH, W.S. (1955). Summary of the points of agreement reached in the previous nine conferences on cybernetics. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - circular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the tenth conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

McCULLOCH, W.S. and PFEIFER, J. (1949). Digital computers called brains. Sci. Monthly, 69, 368-376.

McCULLOCH, W.S. and PITTS, W. (1943). A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. Bull. math. Biophys. 5, 115-133.

McCULLOCH, W.S. and PITTS, W. (1947). How we know universals. Bull. math. Biophys. 9, 127-147.

McCULLOCH, W.S. and PITTS, W. (1948). The statistical organization of nervous activity. Biometrics, 4, 91-99.

McGILL, W.J. (1954). Multivariate information transmission. Psychometrika, 19, 97-116.

McGILL, W.J. (1955a). Isomorphism in statistical analysis. In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

McGILL, W.J. (1955b). The relation between uncertainty and variance. Proc. 1954 conf. test Probl. Educ. Test Serv. 37-42.

McGILL, W.J. and QUASTLER, H. (1955). Standardized nomenclature - an attempt. In H. Quastler (Ed.), Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press.

McMILLAN, B. (1953a). The basic theorems of information theory. Ann. math. Statist. 24, 196.

McMILLAN, B. (1953b). Mathematical aspects of informtion theory. In R.A. Patton, Current trends in information theory. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Pittsburgh Univer. Press.

MEAD, M. (1951). Experience in learning primitive languages through the use of learning high level linguistic abstractions. In H. von Foerster (Ed.), Cybernetics - crcular, causal and feedback mechanisms in biological and social systems. Transactions of the seventh conference. New York: Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation.

MESZAR, J. (1953). Switching systems as mechanical brains. Bell labs. record, 31, 63-69.

MEYER-EPPLER, W. and DARIUS, G. (1955). Two-dimensiona1 photographic auto-correlation of pictures and alphabet letters. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MILLER, G.A. (1947). Population, distance, and circulation of information. Amer. J. Psychol. 60, 276-284.

MILLER, G.A. (1950). Language engineering. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 22, 6, 720-725.

MILLER, G.A. (1951a). Language and communication. New York: McGraw Hill.

MILLER, G.A. (1951b) Speech and language. In S.S. Stevens (Ed.). Handbook of experimental psychology. New York: Wiley.

MILLER, G.A. (1953a). Information theory and the study of speech. In R.A. Patton (Ed.), Current trends in information theory. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Univer. of Pittsburgh Press.

MIlLER, G.A. (1953b). What is information measurement? Amer. Psychologist, 8, 3-11.

MILLER, G.A. (1954a). Communication. Annu. Rev. Psychol.

MILLER, G.A. (1954b). Psycholinguistics. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology II Cambridge, Mass: Addison-Wesley.

MILLER, G.A. (1955) Note on the bias of information estimates. In H. Quastler (Ed,), Information theory in psychology. Glencoe, Ill: Free Press.

MILLER, G.A. (1956) The magical number seven, plus or minus two - some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychol. Rev. 63, 2, 81-97.

MILLER, G.A. and FRICK, C.F. (1949) .Statistical behaviouristics and sequences of responses. Psychol. Rev. 56, 6.

MILLER, G.A. and SELFRIDGE, J.A. (1950). Verbal context and the recall of meaningful material. Amer. J. Psychol. 63, 176-185.

MILLER, G.A., HEISER, G.A. and LITCHEN, W. (1951) The intelligibility of speech as a function of the context of test materials. J. Exp. Psychol. 41, 5.

MILLER, I. (1954). Auditory perception in relation to amount of information and speech-to-noise ratio. Dissertation Abstr. 14, 2136. Abstract of Ph.D. thesis, Purdue Univer.

MILLER, R.B., FOLLEY, J.D. Jr. and SMITH, P.R. (1953). Trouble shooting in electronics equipment, - a proposed method. Pittsburgh, Pa: Amer. Inst. for Research.

MINISTRY OF SUPPLY (1950). Bibliography of information on servomechanisms and related subjects. Prepared for the Interdepartmental Technical Committee on Servomechanisms. London: Technical Information Bureau, Ministry of Supply.

MINSKY, M.I. (1953). Theory of neural-analog reinforcement systems and its application to the brain-model problem. PhD dissertation, Princeton Univer.

MINSKY, M.I. (1954). Neural-analog networks and the brain-model problem. Princeton Univer. Microfilmed.

MINSKY, M.I. (1956). Some Universal elements for finite automata. In C.E. Shannon and J. McCarthy (Eds.), Automata Studies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univer. Press.

MOOERS, C. (1955). Information retrieval on structured content. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

MOOERS, C. N. (1952). Machines for information retrieval, learning and translating. Invited paper circulated at the symposium on machine translation organized by Y. Bar-Hillel at M.I.T.

MOORE, E.F. (1956). Gedanken-experiments on sequential machines. In C.E. Shannon and J. Mcarthy (Eds.), Automata Studies. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univer. Press.

MOORE, E.F. and TUMIN (1949). Some social functions of ignorance. Amer. sociol. Rev. 14, 6,787-795.

MOREHOUSE et al. (1950). An electro-analog method of investigating problems in economic dynamics - inventory oscillations. Econometrica, 18, 313-328.

MORRIS, C W. (1946). Signs, language and behaviour. New York: Prentice-Hall.

MOSIER, R.D. (1952). Cybernetics and the educative process. Calif. J. educ. Res. 3, 147-150. ,

MOWRER, O.H. (1954). Ego pscyhology, cybernetics, and learning theory. In Kentucky Symposium - learning theory, personality theory, and clinical research. New York: Wiley.

MUNDY-CASTLE, A.C. (1953). Cybernetics. S. African Med. J. 27, 49-53.

MUNSON, V.A. and KARLIN, J. E. (1954). Measurement of human channel transmission characteristics. J. acoust. Soc. Amer. 26, 542-553.

MURPHEE, O.D. (1954). Maximum rates of form perception and the alpha rhythm - an investigation and test of current nerve net theory. J. exp. Psychol. 48, 57-61.

MURRAY, F.J. (1948). The theory of mathematical machines. New York: Kings Crown Press.

N

NAGEL, E. (1951). Mechanistic explanations and organismic biology. Phil. phenomenol. Res. 11, 327-338.

NEGLEY, G. (1951). Cybernetics and theories of mind. J. Phil. 48, 19, 574-582.

NEWELL, A. (1955). A chess-playing machine. Proc. Western Joint Computer Conf. I.R.E, A.I.E.E,.A.C.M.

NEWMAN, E.B. (1951). The pattern of vowels and consonants in various languages. Amer. J. Psychol. 64, 369-379.

NEWMAN, E.B. (1951a). Computation methods useful in analysing series of binary data. Amer. J. Psychol. 64, 369-379.

NEWMAN, E.B. and GERSTMAN, L.J. (1952). A new method for analysing printed English. J. exp. Psychol. 44, 114-125.

NORTH, J. D. ( ). The rational behaviour of mechanically extended man. Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd.

NORTH, J.D. (1955). Application of commmunication theory to the human operator. In E.C. Cherry (Ed.), Information theory, third London symposium. London: Butterworths.

NORTHROP, F.S.C. (1948). The neurological and behaviouristic basis of the ordering of society by means of ideas. Science, 107, 2782, 411-417.

NYQUIST, H. (1924.) .Certain factors affecting telegraph speed. Bell Syst. tech. J. 3, 324.

NYQUIST, H. (1928). Certain topics in telegraphic transmission theory. Trans. A.I.E.E. 47, 617.

NYQUIST, H. (1932). Regeneration theory. Bell Syst. tech. J. 126.

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